Hip Labral Tear
Labrum is a ring of strong fibrocartilaginous tissue lining around the socket of the hip joint. Labrum serves many functions where it acts as shock absorber, lubricates the joint, and distributes the pressure equally. It holds the head of the femur in place and prevents the lateral and vertical movement of the femur head with in the joint. It also deepens the acetabular cavity and offers stability against femoral head translation.
Labral tear may be caused by trauma, femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), hip hypermobility, dysplasia, and degeneration.
The hip joint is one of the largest weight-bearing joints in the body, formed by the thigh bone or femur and the acetabulum of the pelvis. It is a ball and socket joint with the head of the femur as the ball and the pelvic acetabulum forming the socket. The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular cartilage which acts as a cushion and enables smooth movements of the joint. A chondral injury refers to an injury of the articular cartilage, covering the joint.
Chondral injuries can result from various hip conditions such as labral tears, loose bodies, posterior dislocation, slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), dysplasia, osteonecrosis, and degenerative arthritis.
The hip plays an important role in supporting the upper body weight while standing, walking and running, and hip stability is crucial for these functions. The femur (thigh bone) and acetabulum (hip bone) join to form the hip joint, while the labrum (tissue rim that seals the hip joint) and the ligaments lining the hip capsule maintain the stability of the hip. Injury or damage to these structures can lead to a condition called hip instability. Hip instability happens when the hip joint becomes unstable causing various symptoms.
Hip instability can be traumatic or atraumatic. Traumatic instability can be caused by injuries from sports or motor vehicle accidents.
Loose bodies are small loose fragments of cartilage or a bone that float around the joint. The loose bodies can cause pain, swelling, locking and catching of the joint. Loose bodies occur if there is bleeding within the joint, death of tissues lining the joints associated with tuberculosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
Loose bodies are commonly found in individuals who participate in sports since they are more susceptible to fractures and other sports injuries.
Inflammatory Arthritis of the Hip
Inflammation of the joints is referred to as arthritis. The inflammation arises when the smooth covering (cartilage) at the end surfaces of the bones wears away. In some cases, the inflammation is caused when the lining of the joint becomes inflamed as part of an underlying systemic disease. These conditions are referred to as inflammatory arthritis.
The typical symptom of arthritis is joint pain. Inflammatory hip arthritis is mainly characterized by an aching pain in the groin region, outer thighs or buttocks. The pain is commonly most severe in the morning which sometimes lessens with activity during the course of the day.
Childhood Hip Problems
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a common disorder that is seen in infants and young children. It may be present at birth or may occur during the first year of life of the infant. As the name suggests, it occurs due to improper development of the hip joint either while the fetus is in the uterus or during the growth phase in the first year of life.
In normal hip, the head of the femur (thigh bone) fits well into the socket (acetabulum) whereas in hip dysplasia, the socket and femoral head are not congruent because of their abnormal development.